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Importance Of Metabolism

Salah satu tugas, lewatin saja. Pusing bacanya nanti. Saya aja pusing:mrgreen:

Metabolism is defined in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary as “The sum of the chemical processes in a cell or organism, by which complex substances are synthesised and broken down, and growth and energy production sustained”. Every living cell, whether an individual single cell such as a bacterium or a cell that is part of large organisms such as a human being, has a metabolism. Countless thousands of interconnected chemical reactions result in the break down of products and the generation of new products in order to let the body or the cell function.

Metabolism differs from organism to organism.  Bacteria and parasites have parts of their metabolism that differ from the metabolism of the human body. These differences have been, and are being, exploited to develop effective and accurate drugs, such as Antibiotic.

Why is metabolism important in the development of new medicines?

Metabolism generates all the products needed by a cell or a body to be able to live. The drugs that we take in order to fight or prevent disease interact with the metabolism of cells or the body in order to stop or alter processes that are not desired. This might for example lead to the death of viruses, bacteria or parasites that have infected the body, or to the prevention of unwanted (auto-)immune responses in the case of autoimmune diseases or transplantation. The drugs are also often changed by the metabolism of the body, and this is often a deliberate part of the design of the drug.

Ideally drugs should only interfere with the metabolic process or processes in a cell or a body that are not wanted. For example a good antibiotic kills only bacteria and not the cells of the human taking the antibiotic. However it is usually not a simple question of yes or no, but more a question of degree. Often at one concentration a drug will be safe, and work as hoped, but at a higher concentration it may be lethal to humans. To be able to develop safe and effective drugs, to ensure that they work only against the desired metabolic processes, and to determine safe dosages it is vital that we understand the metabolism(s) involved.

How do we test whether new drugs are safe and effective?

Firstly we test whether they work on cells in culture. If they are effective in culture, new drugs can then be tested in small animals, such as mice and rats. However, there are very significant differences between the metabolisms of different animals. Although these differences may sometimes appear to be small, they can have an enormous impact on the effectiveness and safety of drugs. The same drug can often be inactivated much more rapidly by the metabolism of one animal when compared with another. To give one example, mice have much higher levels of a certain enzyme (called an esterase) in their blood than do monkeys and humans. Importantly, this enzyme degrades a number of drugs rapidly. When such a drug is tested in mice whose activity is interfered with by this enzyme, the outcome is quite different from that seen in humans. In contrast, there is a very close similarity between the metabolism of humans and monkeys. This means that experiments in monkeys can often play a vital role in evaluating new drugs.

As well as basic differences in metabolism, the pattern of disease that, for example, a mouse or a rat gets is quite different from that seen in humans. Where it is important to measure the effectiveness of a new drug against a disease, this often means that the drug must be tested in animals that respond much more like humans. Thus, in order to measure the effectiveness of a drug against a disease, experiments in monkeys can often be necessary.

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Dulu saya suka kasian lihat mencit-mencit putih yang imut dan lucu dianiaya diberi perlakuan. Memang saya sedikit phobi sama mereka,  makanya sewaktu praktikum Farmakologi I dulu saya takut. Disuruh megang mencit saja takut, apalagi tikus. Tapi, sekarang sudah oke sih, soalnya tidak “bertemu” mereka lagi🙂

Hoho, ini tugas yang dikupipes dengan sedikiiiiiittttt penambahan (asli sedikit!). Sumbernya dari sini.

5 comments on “Importance Of Metabolism

  1. Rizma Adlia
    May 25, 2007

    Emang desti kuliah dimana si??
    masalah percobaan itu, kan selain dicobain ke mencit, dibikin perbandingan antara obat itu sama placebo,, tapi masih ada kontradiksi etika,, gitu deh,,

    _______________________________________________
    Disitu, iya, disitu. Hehe, di Farmasi Unand, mbak Ma.
    Hehe, saya memang kasihan sama mencit2 itu. Tapi, ya…kan demi kelangsungan hidup manusia juga. Kalo obat langsung dicobakan ke orang kan bahaya. Lagian, emang ada yg mau?🙂

    Omong2 tentang placebo, ada orang yang sembuh hanya dengan placebo. Jadi dia sembuh karna sugesti gitu. Emang sih, tergantung tingkat keparahan penyakitnya juga. Dan kasus ini jarang terjadi. Cuma, ya…makin memperkuat kecurigaan saya sama obat saja. Secara obat kan racun! Hehe, tukang jual obat kok malah menjelek2an obat ya?:mrgreen:

  2. gerry
    May 25, 2007

    Farmasi Unand depan Fekon? ato disana itu Kedok ya? lupa, padahal dekat rumah🙂 ngomong2 soal experiment, gw pernah denger kalo percobaan obat pada manusia itu mang ada. Biasanya sama gelandangan gitu kalo di US sana, tp mereka dibayar.
    http://www.apfn.org/apfn/experiment.htm
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    Wehehe, itu FK. Kampus saya ya di Limau Manis, yang jauhnya amit2 itu😛 Oohh..rumahnya di daerah Jati ya?
    Obat baru memang nantinya akan dicobakan pada manusia, tapi itu pas tahap akhir, tahap klinik. Sebelumnya harus dicobakan pada hewan dulu, secara bertingkat, mulai dari mencit sampai monyet. Panjang prosesnya & mahal biayanya. Makanya di Indonesia belum ada industri yang membuat obat sendiri, palingan beli lisensi dari pabrik asal di luar sana.
    Soal dibayar, memang ada timbal baliknya. Kenapa gelandangan? Menurut saya sih, karna mereka yang bersedia. Coba orang biasa, emangnya mau? Tapi ya…tetep ada syaratnya bagi yang jadi sukwan.
    Panjang ya? Bingung? Hehe…mohon koreksinya kalau saya salah🙂

    Wah…serem juga bacanya (situs itu). Ah dunia..*halah!*

  3. danasatriya
    May 25, 2007

    SUBTITLE PLEEEEEEEEASE:mrgreen:
    mba’e tak link ke blogroll ku yak🙂

    ________________________________________________
    Subtitle atau translete-an nih mintanya?:mrgreen: juga
    Link? Silahkan mas.🙂

  4. wargabanten
    May 25, 2007

    gakbisa baca saya… makasih..
    __________________________________________________
    Gpp. Saya juga bingung. Makasih juga😀

  5. jurig
    May 26, 2007

    wah bener tuh …
    pusiiinggg
    __________________________________________________
    Pusing in da house! Hehe…:D

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This entry was posted on May 25, 2007 by in D Plus.
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